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  • North American Studies

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Trovåg, Hans Arne;

    The American diplomatic relationship with Syria was in 1977 mainly focused on achieving a comprehensive peace in the Middle East. The peace agreement was planned to be made at a reconvening of the Geneva Peace Conference, with the U.S. and Soviet Union as co-hosts. In all dealings with Syria, this was the ultimate end goal. During the first half of 1977, Syria was seen as pivotal in making or breaking a peace agreement. They were believed to have the power to persuade the PLO to accept UN resolution 242.1 It was belied that the other Arab states would follow Syria ‘s lead because they represented a united Arab front. The U.S. did however underestimate the animosity Assad felt towards Sadat after the 1973 October War, and it turned out that Sadat wanted to make a deal separate of the other Arab nations. A deal that would be much easier for Israel to accept because they had very few common interests. In the late summer of 1977, it became obvious that Israel could not make any deal with Syria and Syria could not get the PLO to accept UN resolution 242. It was Israeli pressure, and refusal to make any compromise, that created this situation. The initial position of the Carter administration was closer to the Syrian but Israeli pressure, both domestic and abroad, made the U.S. favor a deal with only Egypt. The Carter administration’s handling of the situation in Lebanon also indicates that Israeli pressure shaped their policy towards Syria. The U.S. accepted Syria as a major player in Lebanon letting them do as they pleased, as long as they did not cross any Israeli interests. If they did, the U.S. would take action against Syria through Israel. The primary sources indicate that it may have been Israeli pressure and power rather than the actual will of the Carter administration that made this foreign policy. In the fall of 1977, U.S. policy towards Syria shifted towards isolation. It became impossible to combine U.S. commitment to Israel with getting Syria to make steps towards any kind of peace treaty. When Anwar Sadat was willing to make a separate deal with Israel, the hopes of reconvening the Geneva Peace Conference died and the idea of the Camp David Accords was born. Syria went from an important and pivotal part of any peace agreement to being totally left out in the cold. The primary sources reveal that the Carter administration’s relations with Syria was in large parts based on Israeli interests, and a result of Israeli pressure at home and abroad. The case of the Syrian Jews further enhances this theory, where Israel forced the Carter administration to act as their herald rather than the negotiator Jimmy Carter actually wanted it to be.

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    Authors: Guderzo, Massimiliano;
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Usiena air - Univers...arrow_drop_down
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    Usiena air - Università di Siena
    Part of book or chapter of book . 2010
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      Usiena air - Università di Siena
      Part of book or chapter of book . 2010
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Guderzo, M.;
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Usiena air - Univers...arrow_drop_down
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Segawa, Takao;

    The purpose of this article is to consider the Carter administration's efforts on SALT II and human rights policy. Previous literature has argued that the Carter administration's human rights policy had a negative impact on SALT II. However, recent studies have noted that the Carter administration denied the linkage between human rights policy and arms control. Such studies suggest that Carter had placed SALT II as a top priority. Therefore, this paper examines that the Carter administration prudently avoided the linkage between human rights policy and arms control in order to reach the SALT II agreement as soon as possible.

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    http://hdl.handle.net/2115/848...
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      http://hdl.handle.net/2115/848...
      Research . 2022
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Roels, Frank;

    In my field, the biomedical sciences, a text should be brief and to the point. So I was surprised when reading your last column entitled "Racism". There you address the president of Iran, Ahmadinejad...

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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Ghent University Aca...arrow_drop_down
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Duccio Basosi;
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Cold War Historyarrow_drop_down
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    Cold War History
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY NC ND
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      Cold War History
      Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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  • The article is dedicated to Jimmy Carter, who was a President of the United States in 1977–1981. He turned 95 on October 1, 2019 and he is the longest-living former president in U.S. history. He is founder of The Carter Center has helped to improve the quality of life for people and prevent disease in more than 80 countries. Jimmy Carter received the Nobel Peace Prize in 2002, for work during and after his time in office. For 40 years he became one of the most admired public figure and philanthropists in the United States and the world. Статья посвящена Джимми Картеру, который был президентом США в 1977–1981 гг. 1 октября 2019 г. ему исполнилось 95 лет, и он является самым долгоживущим бывшим пре-зидентом в истории США. Он основатель Центра Картера, который помог улучшить каче-ство жизни людей и предотвратить болезни в более чем 80 странах. Джимми Картер получил Нобелевскую премию мира в 2002 г. за работу во время и после своего пребывания в долж-ности. За 40 лет он стал одним из самых почитаемых общественных деятелей и филантропов в США и мире.

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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Basosi, Duccio;

    During his term in office, US President Jimmy Carter made several symbolic gestures to show his support to European integration. In particular, in December 1978 he warmly endorsed the European Monetary System. This seemed coherent with Carter's focus on multilateralism and, more precisely, on the ‘trilateral’ partnership between the US, Western Europe and Japan. Declassified documents show, however, that such endorsement only came after careful observation of the characteristics of the EMS and after discrete diplomatic pressures on the Europeans to ensure that the EMS would not impinge on the global role of the US dollar.

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Archivio istituziona...arrow_drop_down
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    Journal of Transatlantic Studies
    Article . 2010 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Archivio istituziona...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Journal of Transatlantic Studies
      Article . 2010 . Peer-reviewed
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  • The present graduate work the image of Deng Xiaoping described by Soviet and foreign authors in the papers and biographies in the period from 1960 - 1990 years. The newspapers of the USSR visit of Deng Xiaoping to the meeting in Washington was described very negatively, because China's diplomatic reference point at this time was the US, not the USSR that caused discontent in the Soviet Union. On the pages of the Soviet newspaper "Pravda", "Izvestia", "Soviet Culture", Deng Xiaoping, during the visit of Mikhail Gorbachev to Beijing, was portrayed a true friend of the USSR, as well as a powerful reformer of the new China. After reading the biographies of Deng Xiaoping formed the opinion that by conducting reforms, Deng showed caution and foresight. He had one goal - to improve the country. В настоящей дипломной работе рассматривается образ Дэн Сяопина, описываемый советскими и иностранными авторами в газетах и биографиях в период с 1960 - 1990 гг. В газетах СССР визит Дэн Сяопина на встречу в Вашингтон описывался резко негативно, поскольку дипломатическим ориентиром Китая в это время были США, а не СССР, что вызывало недовольство в Советском Союзе. На страницах советских газет «Правда», «Известия», «Советская культура» Дэн Сяопин, во время визита М. С. Горбачева в Пекин, был обрисован настоящим другом СССР, а также могущественным реформатором нового Китая. По прочтении биографий Дэн Сяопина формируется мнение, что, проводя реформы, Дэн показал осторожность и дальновидность. У него была одна цель - усовершенствовать страну.

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  • The article is dedicated to Lillian Carter. She was the mother of the 39th President of the United States, Jimmy Carter, but became known for her active social and humanitarian activities. «Miss Lillian» as a supporter of social justice defended the rights of African Americans, disadvantaged people and women. As a nurse practitioner, in the segregation of the U.S. South, she provided care to all those in need without exception, including African Americans. In 1966, Lillian Carter, at the age of 68, went to India as a Peace Corps volunteer and worked there for two years. During the presidency of her son Jimmy Carter, «Miss Lillian» as his special representative made foreign trips and went down in history as the «First Mother of the World». Статья посвящена Лилиан Картер. Она была матерью 39-го президента США Джимми Картера, но стала известной благодаря своей активной социальной и гуманитарной деятельности. «Мисс Лилиан» как сторонница социальной справедливости отстаивала права афроамериканцев, обездоленных людей и женщин. Как практикующая медсестра, в условиях сегрегации Юга США она оказывала помощь всем нуждающимся без исключения, включая афроамериканцев. В 1966 г. Лилиан Картер в возрасте 68 лет в качестве волонтера «Корпуса мира» поехала в Индию и работала там в течение двух лет. В период президентства своего сына Джимми Картера «мисс Лилиан» как его спецпредставитель совершала зарубежные поездки и вошла в историю как «Первая мать мира».

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    Authors: Trovåg, Hans Arne;

    The American diplomatic relationship with Syria was in 1977 mainly focused on achieving a comprehensive peace in the Middle East. The peace agreement was planned to be made at a reconvening of the Geneva Peace Conference, with the U.S. and Soviet Union as co-hosts. In all dealings with Syria, this was the ultimate end goal. During the first half of 1977, Syria was seen as pivotal in making or breaking a peace agreement. They were believed to have the power to persuade the PLO to accept UN resolution 242.1 It was belied that the other Arab states would follow Syria ‘s lead because they represented a united Arab front. The U.S. did however underestimate the animosity Assad felt towards Sadat after the 1973 October War, and it turned out that Sadat wanted to make a deal separate of the other Arab nations. A deal that would be much easier for Israel to accept because they had very few common interests. In the late summer of 1977, it became obvious that Israel could not make any deal with Syria and Syria could not get the PLO to accept UN resolution 242. It was Israeli pressure, and refusal to make any compromise, that created this situation. The initial position of the Carter administration was closer to the Syrian but Israeli pressure, both domestic and abroad, made the U.S. favor a deal with only Egypt. The Carter administration’s handling of the situation in Lebanon also indicates that Israeli pressure shaped their policy towards Syria. The U.S. accepted Syria as a major player in Lebanon letting them do as they pleased, as long as they did not cross any Israeli interests. If they did, the U.S. would take action against Syria through Israel. The primary sources indicate that it may have been Israeli pressure and power rather than the actual will of the Carter administration that made this foreign policy. In the fall of 1977, U.S. policy towards Syria shifted towards isolation. It became impossible to combine U.S. commitment to Israel with getting Syria to make steps towards any kind of peace treaty. When Anwar Sadat was willing to make a separate deal with Israel, the hopes of reconvening the Geneva Peace Conference died and the idea of the Camp David Accords was born. Syria went from an important and pivotal part of any peace agreement to being totally left out in the cold. The primary sources reveal that the Carter administration’s relations with Syria was in large parts based on Israeli interests, and a result of Israeli pressure at home and abroad. The case of the Syrian Jews further enhances this theory, where Israel forced the Carter administration to act as their herald rather than the negotiator Jimmy Carter actually wanted it to be.

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Guderzo, Massimiliano;
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    Usiena air - Università di Siena
    Part of book or chapter of book . 2010
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      Usiena air - Università di Siena
      Part of book or chapter of book . 2010
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Guderzo, M.;
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    Authors: Segawa, Takao;

    The purpose of this article is to consider the Carter administration's efforts on SALT II and human rights policy. Previous literature has argued that the Carter administration's human rights policy had a negative impact on SALT II. However, recent studies have noted that the Carter administration denied the linkage between human rights policy and arms control. Such studies suggest that Carter had placed SALT II as a top priority. Therefore, this paper examines that the Carter administration prudently avoided the linkage between human rights policy and arms control in order to reach the SALT II agreement as soon as possible.

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    http://hdl.handle.net/2115/848...
    Research . 2022
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      http://hdl.handle.net/2115/848...
      Research . 2022
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Roels, Frank;

    In my field, the biomedical sciences, a text should be brief and to the point. So I was surprised when reading your last column entitled "Racism". There you address the president of Iran, Ahmadinejad...

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    Authors: Duccio Basosi;
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    Cold War History
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY NC ND
    Data sources: Crossref
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      Cold War History
      Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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  • The article is dedicated to Jimmy Carter, who was a President of the United States in 1977–1981. He turned 95 on October 1, 2019 and he is the longest-living former president in U.S. history. He is founder of The Carter Center has helped to improve the quality of life for people and prevent disease in more than 80 countries. Jimmy Carter received the Nobel Peace Prize in 2002, for work during and after his time in office. For 40 years he became one of the most admired public figure and philanthropists in the United States and the world. Статья посвящена Джимми Картеру, который был президентом США в 1977–1981 гг. 1 октября 2019 г. ему исполнилось 95 лет, и он является самым долгоживущим бывшим пре-зидентом в истории США. Он основатель Центра Картера, который помог улучшить каче-ство жизни людей и предотвратить болезни в более чем 80 странах. Джимми Картер получил Нобелевскую премию мира в 2002 г. за работу во время и после своего пребывания в долж-ности. За 40 лет он стал одним из самых почитаемых общественных деятелей и филантропов в США и мире.

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